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Frozen Berries Frozen Berries

Caneberries

Women Picking Blackberries in 1910
OSU Special Collections & Archives

History

The exact details of how blackberries arrived in Oregon during the mid 1800s is unclear, however, it is known that they were either brought by immigrants on the Oregon Trail or came from Hawaii.

Oregon quickly became well-known for its raspberries and by 1910 Gresham was considered the “Raspberry Capitol of the World”. Through breeding, many different kinds of caneberries were created. For example, the marionberry, loganberry and olallieberry were all created by the interbreeding of previously existing or wild berries.

What is a Caneberry?

The term caneberry refers to a family of delicate berries that grow on a hard, woody stem that resembles a cane. Many types of berries are considered caneberries, including raspberries, blackberries, boysenberries and many others. Caneberries may also be called brambles and belong to the rose family.

Caneberry Plant
Pixabay

Importance to Oregon

Like many other commodities, Oregon is one of the top ranking states in the United States for production of caneberries! Oregon ranks number one for blackberry and boysenberry production, number two for black raspberry production and number three for red raspberry production. In fact, 90% of all United States grown frozen blackberries are from Oregon. Most of the production in Oregon is located west of the Cascade Mountain Range in the Willamette Valley.

Caneberry
Bernadine Strik

 

Planting, Growing, Harvesting

Planting, growing and harvesting of caneberries depends on the variety of berry, however, management practices are similar.
Tissue-culture Plug Caneberry

Planting

It is important to take site selection, variety, site preparation, pruning, harvesting, etc into consideration when planting caneberries. It is best to select a site that is exposed to full sunlight, contains organic matter and has well-drained soil. Certified disease-free plants should be purchased from a nursery. Caneberry plants are most commonly purchased as bare root nursery stock or as tissue-cultured plugs. In Oregon, planting should occur during the spring.

Caneberry Trellis

Growing

When growing caneberries, it is important to note that they need specialized care throughout the year. Caneberry plants have perennial roots and crowns, but their canes are biennial, meaning they grow one year and produce fruit the following year. A trellis system is used to train the canes. Pruning is done to ensure plants are healthy and dead canes are removed. Types of berries have different requirements for pruning. Caneberries also require water frequently throughout the fruiting season. Fertilizer and other nutrients are applied to caneberries at different times of the year.

Mechanical Harvester Caneberries

Harvesting

Harvest takes place from July to September in Oregon. Caneberries may be hand or machine harvested, depending on the type of berry.

Caneberries are hand harvested when they are firm to the touch, but have full color and a sweet flavor. When harvesting caneberries, the delicate fruits should be carefully removed from the cane.

Some caneberries are harvested with a mechanical harvester. The harvester straddles the row and gently shakes the ripened berries off of the canes. The berries are then moved up a conveyor and sorted from twigs and debris. Mechanical harvest is very efficient and reduces labor costs.

Frozen Berry Industry in Oregon

Roughly 90% of all frozen blackberries sold in the United States are grown in Oregon. Oregon is a large producer of caneberries because of the climate. They thrive in the temperate, wet climate with warm days and cool nights that Oregon’s Willamette Valley provides. The berries are harvested when they are fully ripe in the field and then quickly brought to processing plant. Once the fruit arrives, it is cleaned to remove dirt and debris. Then the berries are hand sorted so that any defective berries are removed before entering a cooler that is around -34 degrees Fahrenheit. Depending on the type of fruit, the time in the cooler varies. It usually takes 20 minutes for the fruit to freeze. Once the fruit is frozen it is sorted again and then packaged for sale.

Frozen Berries
Jonathan Potts

 

Blackberry

Blackberries

Blackberries are black in color when ripe and there are several wild and cultivated varieties. There are also some invasive species, such as the Himalayan Blackberry.

Raspberry

Raspberries

Raspberries are usually red in color when ripe, but there are several different types that can vary in color. Raspberries are different from blackberries, because when they are ripe, the core of the berry remains on the bush after picking.

Marionberry

Marionberries

Marionberries are a cross between the Chehalem blackberry and the olallieberry. They were created at Oregon State University and named after Marion County where the majority of field trials occurred. Marionberries are a deep red to black color when ripe.

Loganberry

Loganberries

Loganberries are crosses of the wild blackberry and the red raspberry. This berry is deep red in color and can be more tart than other caneberries.

Black Raspberries

Black Raspberries

Black raspberries are native to North America and are commercially grown in Oregon. They have a very dark pigment and are stronger in flavor than red and golden varieties of raspberries. They also contain the highest amount of antioxidants compared to any other berry.

Marionberry Scones

Marionberry Scones

Ingredients

5 cups all-purpose flour, plus more for hands and parchment

1 cup sugar, plus more for sprinkling

2 1/2 tablespoons baking powder

1 teaspoon salt

3/4 cup shortening

1/2 cup butter

2 cups milk

1 1/2 to 2 cups marionberries (or substitute blackberries)

Icing:

2 cups powdered sugar

2 teaspoons lemon extract

1/4 cup milk

Directions

  1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F.
  2. To make the scones: In a mixer, blend dry ingredients, shortening and butter together thoroughly until mixture looks like bread crumbs. Add most of the milk and mix for about 30 seconds. Scrape down sides and bottom of bowl, adding more milk to completely moisten dough. Be careful not to over mix. Flour hands and divide the dough in half and place on two pieces of floured parchment paper. Re-flour hands and shape dough into a large circle about 10 inches in diameter. Place about 3/4 cup marionberries evenly on each circle, leaving a 2-inch edge. Re-flour the parchment papers. Re-flour hands and fold up edges to completely cover marionberries. Flatten out scone with floured hands to 10 inches in diameter. Cut into 6 pie shaped pieces and sprinkle with sugar. Bake for 20 minutes, rotating once halfway through the cooking time. Remove from oven and let cool completely.
  3. To make the icing: Combine all ingredients in medium bowl. Mix for about 30 seconds or until thick. Drizzle scones with lemon icing. Let icing harden before serving.

 

Recipe courtesy of  Food Network.

Fun Facts

  1. Blackberries are sometimes called brambleberries, dewberries and thimbleberries.
  2. Caneberries have around 100 drupelets on their fruit, with each containing one seed.
  3. Raspberries can be red, purple, golden and black depending on variety.
  4. Marionberry canes can grow to be 20 feet long.
  5. The olallieberry was developed at Oregon State University in 1949.
  6. Caneberries are a good source of fiber.
  7. The loganberry is a cross between a blackberry and a raspberry.
  8. Caneberries can also be classified as brambles.
  9. Caneberry leaves are consumed by some insects and mammals such as caterpillars and deer.
  10.  Batology is the study of brambles or caneberries.

AITC Resources

Berries to Jelly
Berries to Jelly
Berries to Jelly

The Berry Book
The Berry Book
The Berry Book

Related Resources

http://www.softschools.com/facts/plants/raspberry_facts/1208/

https://www.britannica.com/plant/blackberry-fruit

https://www.britannica.com/plant/raspberry

http://www.yournw.com/what-is-a-marionberry

https://www.britannica.com/plant/loganberry

Why Oregon

https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/southeast-regional-caneberry-production-guide/harvesting-and-postharvest-management

Why Oregon

A Brief History

http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-1032/HLA-6239web.pdf

https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/southeast-regional-caneberry-production-guide/site-preparation-planting-and-establishment

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/gardening/2017/04/time-turn-attention-blackberries-and-raspberries

https://catalog.extension.oregonstate.edu/sites/catalog/files/project/pdf/ec1303.pdf

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/gardening/help-cane-berries-bear-more-fruit

Marionberry Maker

Marionberry Scones